To revist this article, visit My Profile, then View saved stories. 27, p. 156-170. However, with NASA's SAGE satellite no longer functional, determination of the extent of the cloud at any given time is very difficult. Geof Internac, 26: 85-108. Stratospheric cloud continues N dispersal. of Arizona; M. Helfert, NOAA, Houston TX; W. Evans, ARPX, Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada. An AVHRR weather satellite image, both visible and thermal, of the April 4, 1982 plume from El Chichon in Mexico. The large stratospheric cloud ejected by the 4 April explosion remained dense over lower northern latitudes, but lidar measurements indicated that gradual northward dispersal was continuing. Rose W I, Bornhorst T J, Halsor S P, Capaul W A, Plumley P J, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Mena M, Mota R, 1984. Instruments at McMurdo, Antarctica, 11,865 km from El Chichón, recorded about 2 hours of infrasonic signals. Table 3. Solfataras and hot springs were present in the crater and on the flanks. Major erosion of pyroclastic flow deposits around El Chichón (figure 3) has taken place since the eruption. A large area around this pool was covered by a crust of a white salt precipitated from the pool water. However, recent research suggests this might not be possible based on the isotopic composition of the sulfur. WIRED is where tomorrow is realized. These springs alternate between periods of high- and low-water discharge feeding the lake. ; S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM, México; M. Matson, NOAA/NESS. In all other areas within 2-3 km of the crater, the 1982 deposits are covered only by moss, lichen, and tall grass. Taran Y A, Fischer T P, Pokrovsky B, Sano Y, Aurora-Armienta M, Macias J L, 1998. The following, from José Luís Macías, Arturo Macías, Jean-Christophe Komorowski, Claus Siebe, and Robert Tilling, describes observations during fieldwork 18 April-21 May 1992, ten years after the major 1982 eruption. Ferns and grasses have returned to some of these hydrothermal areas. In the upper layer there were more than 500 particles of less than 0.01 µm/cm3 and about 20 particles larger than 1 µm/cm3. The two crater lakes observed in September had combined into a single bright yellow-green lake that covered more than 80% of the crater floor. Information Contacts: S. De la Cruz-Reyna, Z. Jiménez, J.M. Further Reference. Site 1, which better reflected the typical ambient conditions, had a pH of 2.15 and a temperature of 33°C. The crater lake, which had recovered to November 1982 levels by November 1990, was turquoise-blue and had at least two large zones of intense surface effervescence as described by Casadevall and others (1984). To validate the results, computer simulations were first performed over pre-1982 topography mimicking the extent of the actual deposits produced and afterwards run over post-1982 topography. Müllerried (1933) describes voluminous airfall deposits from previous eruptions that he believed to be post-Pleistocene. The belt runs from El Chichon â¦ Carey, S.N. El Chichon, Mexico 1982 El Chichon was another volcano in which residents had little warning of impending danger. of East Anglia, England. . As expected, no evidence of the start of a dome growth episode has been detected.". However, the authors' investigation found no evidence to support current dome growth. Res., 136: 247-268. H2S made up more than 95% of the sulfur gases in the plume. Temperature (43°C) and pH (1.9) of the lake had changed little since the previous visit on 21 October 1983 (42°C and 1.8). and Oppenheimer, C., 2003. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility. Ponds 1 m in diameter on the NW side of the lake contained vigorously boiling mud (rising <1 m) and water. The powerful 1982 explosive eruptions of high-sulfur, anhydrite-bearing magma destroyed the summit lava dome and were accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges that devastated an area extending about 8 km around the volcano. At around 11:30 p.m., the volcano produced the first of its three major Plinian eruptions, unleashing a plume that reached 27 km and within 40 minutes, the plume had a diameter of 100 km. De la Cruz-Reyna S, Mena M, Segovia N, Chalot J F, Seidel J L, Monnin M, 1985. Many roofs had been destroyed. 4, with only smaller vulcanian and phreatic (steam-driven) explosions from the volcano -- and all this time people chaotically evacuated the area. Saline, near-neutral pH water pours from a boiling geyser-like spring on the lake's N coast. Minor microseismic activity was continuing in early July. The drop in lake level prevented temperature and pH measurements at the same sites sampled last June. The andesite magma from El Chichón has about 2.6 weight percent SO3, many times more than most magmas. There have been no reports or evidence of lava dome extrusion (a large summit dome was destroyed by the March-April explosions). Several terraces representing stationary lake levels were visible. No significant N-S component had developed above 10 km since the El Chichón eruption. Site 2 had slightly higher readings: a pH of 2.21 and a temperature of 34.5°C. The active crater, ~ 600 m in diameter in early May, was located within the pre-existing shallow summit crater that had dimensions of ~ 1,900 X 900 m. A 12-km prohibited zone around the summit remained in effect in early May. However, cloud elevations were estimated at 13.5 km and this prompted an on-site investigation. Long windrows of aerosol were visible, similar to the phenomenon seen after the 1976 Augustine eruption. There is data available for 1 emission periods. Information Contacts: Yuri Taran, Jose Luis Macias, Juan Manuel Espindola, and Nicholas Varley, Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, México D.F., México. A team of scientists from UNAM and elsewhere visited El Chichón's crater lake on 15 February. The emissions were H2S-rich, apparently partly because the lake (temperature 52°C, pH 0.56) and the ground water were selectively extracting SO2. Some of the streams on the outer flanks of the volcano had dried up for the first time in 15 years, and bubble activity was observed in the entire lake. Armienta, UNAM; Marco A. Cuesta Escobar, Raul García Santiago, Edipson Pastrana Vázquez, and Silvia Ramos Hernández, Coordinación de Investigación, Consejo Estatal de Fomento a la Investigación y Difusión de la Cultura, Chiapas, México; J.L. Explosive volcanic activity during the last 3,500 years at El Chichon volcano, Mexico. The WIRED conversation illuminates how technology is changing every aspect of our lives—from culture to business, science to design. Information Contacts: L. Silva M., J-J. Magnitude 3 earthquake nearby but crater unchanged. Guerrero, J.C. The 1982 eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Mexico: stratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. El Chichón is located in a heavily forested mountainous area in Chiapas, 670 km ESE of México City. Armienta M.A., De la Cruz-Reyna S., and Macías, J.L., 2000, Chemical characteristics of the crater lakes of Popocatepetl, El Chichón, and Nevado de Toluca volcanoes, Mexico: JVGR 97, p. 105-125. (ed. A preliminary flux rate from the crater floor in October 2007 was 1,930 g/(m2/day). Reference. We think that the ashfall most likely was dust produced during large rockfalls from the crater walls, and the noise was the sound of the rockfalls. The caldera is about a kilometer wide and a few hundred meters deep. 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