The method of matched asymptotic expansion is often used for this purpose. 0000001957 00000 n The formulation of the treatment is given in Section 2. Formal Derivation of the Multipole Expansion of the Potential in Cartesian Coordinates Consider a charge density ρ(x) confined to a finite region of space (say within a sphere of radius R). MULTIPOLE EXPANSION IN ELECTROSTATICS Link to: physicspages home page. ��@p�PkK7 *�w�Gy�I��wT�#;�F��E�z��(���-A1.����@�4����v�4����7��*B&�3�]T�(� 6i���/���� ���Fj�\�F|1a�Ĝ5"� d�Y��l��H+& c�b���FX�@0CH�Ū�,+�t�I���d�%��)mOCw���J1�� ��8kH�.X#a]�A(�kQԊ�B1ʠ � ��ʕI�_ou�u�u��t�gܘِ� %PDF-1.2 0000006252 00000 n 0000006915 00000 n The multipole expansion of the potential is: = 1 4 0 ∑ l=0 ∞ ∑ m=−l l 4 0000003750 00000 n 0000025967 00000 n accuracy, especially for jxjlarge. on the multipole expansion of an elastically scattered light field from an Ag spheroid. Physics 322: Example of multipole expansion Carl Adams, St. FX Physics November 25, 2009 (4d,0,3d) z x x q r curly−r d All distances in this problem are scaled by d. The source charge q is oﬀset by distance d along the z-axis. 0000003570 00000 n The Fast Multipole Method: Numerical Implementation Eric Darve Center for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3030 E-mail: darve@ctr.stanford.edu Received June 8, 1999; revised December 15, 1999 We study integral methods applied to the resolution of the Maxwell equations 3.1 The Multipole Expansion. Translation of a multipole expansion (M2M) Suppose that is a multipole expansion of the potential due to a set of m charges of strengths q 1,q 2,…,q m, all of which are located inside the circle D of radius R with center at z o. 0000042302 00000 n The various results of individual mul-tipole contributions and their dependence on the multipole-order number and the size of spheroid are given in Section 3. �e�%��M�d�L�`Ic�@�r�������c��@2���d,�Vf��| ̋A�.ۀE�x�n`8��@��G��D� ,N&�3p�&��x�1ű)u2��=:-����Gd�:N�����.��� 8rm��'��x&�CN�ʇBl�$Ma�������\�30����ANI``ޮ�-� �x��@��N��9�wݡ� ���C The multipole expansion of 1=j~r ~r0jshows the relation and demonstrates that at long distances r>>r0, we can expand the potential as a multipole, i.e. 0000007893 00000 n stream We have found that eliminating all centers with a charge less than .1 of an electron unit has little effect on the results. Equations (4) and (8)-(9) can be called multipole expansions. View Griffiths Problems 03.26.pdf from PHYSICS PH102 at Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati. 0000003258 00000 n Multipole Expansion e171 Multipole Series and the Multipole Operators of a Particle With such a coordinate system, the Coulomb interaction of particles 1 and 2 (with charges q1 and q2) can be expanded using the following approximation2: q1q2 r12 mnk k=0 snl l=0 m=−s Akl|m|R −(k+ l+1)M ˆ(k,m) a (1) ∗M( ,m) b (2), (X.2) where the coefﬁcient other to invoke the multipole expansion appr ox-imation. Translation of a multipole expansion (M2M) Suppose that is a multipole expansion of the potential due to a set of m charges of strengths q 1,q 2,…,q m, all of which are located inside the circle D of radius R with center at z o. Contents 1. h�bb�g`b``$ � � The various results of individual mul-tipole contributions and their dependence on the multipole-order number and the size of spheroid are given in Section 3. 0000011471 00000 n Electric Field and Energy Field of multipole r0: E = r = 1 4ˇ 0 qn jr r0j2 3n(p n) p jr r0j3 where n is unit vector in direction r r0. Multipole Expansion of Gravitational Waves: from Harmonic to Bondi coordinates (or \Monsieur de Donder meets Sir Bondi") Luc Blanchet,a1 Geo rey Comp ere,b2 Guillaume Faye,a3 Roberto Oliveri,c4 Ali Serajb5 a GR"CO, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS & Sorbonne Universit e, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France b Universit e Libre de Bruxelles, Centre for Gravitational Waves, 1. View nano_41.pdf from SCIENCES S 2303 at University of Malaysia, Sarawak. 0000002593 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n Ä�-�b��a%��7��k0Jj. on the multipole expansion of an elastically scattered light field from an Ag spheroid. are known as the multipole moments of the charge distribution .Here, the integral is over all space. 0000010582 00000 n 0000003001 00000 n ʞ��t��#a�o��7q�y^De f��&��������<���}��%ÿ�X��� u�8 endstream endobj 169 0 obj <. 0000009832 00000 n �Wzj�I[�5,�25�����ECFY�Ef�CddB1�#'QD�ZR߱�"��mhl8��l-j+Q���T6qJb,G�K�9� 2 Multipole expansion of time dependent electromagnetic ﬁelds 2.1 The ﬁelds in terms of the potentials Consider a localized, oscillating source, located in otherwise empty space. The first practical algo-rithms6,7combined the two ideas for use in as-trophysical simulations. 0000013576 00000 n Tensors are useful in all physical situations that involve complicated dependence on directions. The multipole expansion of the potential is: = 1 4 0 ∑ l=0 ∞ ∑ m=−l l 4 Incidentally, the type of expansion specified in Equation is called a multipole expansion.The most important are those corresponding to , , and , which are known as monopole, dipole, and quadrupole moments, respectively. This expansion was the rst instance of what came to be known as multipole expansions. In addition to the well-known formulation of multipole expansion found in textbooks of electrodynamics,[38] some expressions have been developed for easier implementation in designing In Figure 2’s oct-tree decomposition, ever-larger regions of space that represent in-creasing numbers of particles can interact through individual multipole expansions at in-creasing distances. <> In this regard, the multipole expansion is a means of abstraction and provides a language to discuss the properties of source distributions. a multipole expansion is appropriate for understanding both the electromagnetic ﬂelds in the near ﬂeld around the pore and their incurred radiation in the outer region. endstream endobj 217 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/Index[157 11]/Length 20/Size 168/Type/XRef/W[1 1 1]>>stream are known as the multipole moments of the charge distribution .Here, the integral is over all space. In the method, the entire wave propagation domain is divided into two regions according Multipole expansion of the magnetic vector potential Consider an arbitrary loop that carries a current I. The standard procedure to obtain a simplified analytic expression for the MEP is the multipole expansion (ME) of the electrostatic potential [30]. Multipole Expansion e171 Multipole Series and the Multipole Operators of a Particle With such a coordinate system, the Coulomb interaction of particles 1 and 2 (with charges q1 and q2) can be expanded using the following approximation2: q1q2 r12 mnk k=0 snl l=0 m=−s Akl|m|R −(k+ l+1)M ˆ(k,m) a (1) ∗M( ,m) b (2), (X.2) where the coefﬁcient A multipole expansion provides a set of parameters that characterize the potential due to a charge distribution of finite size at large distances from that distribution. Using isotropic elasticity, LeSar and Rickman performed a multipole expansion of the interaction energy between dislocations in three dimensions [2], and Wang et al. a multipole expansion is appropriate for understanding both the electromagnetic ﬂelds in the near ﬂeld around the pore and their incurred radiation in the outer region. (c) For the charge distribution of the second set b) write down the multipole expansion for the potential. In Figure 2’s oct-tree decomposition, ever-larger regions of space that represent in-creasing numbers of particles can interact through individual multipole expansions at in-creasing distances. Some derivation and conceptual motivation of the multiple expansion. x��[[����I�q� �)N����A��x�����T����C���˹��*���F�K��6|������eH��Ç'��_���Ip�����8�\�ɨ�5)|�o�=~�e��^z7>� Let’s start by calculating the exact potential at the ﬁeld point r= … Multipole expansion (today) Fermi used to say, “When in doubt, expand in a power series.” This provides another fruitful way to approach problems not immediately accessible by other means. gave multipole representations of the elastic elds of dislocation loop ensembles [3]. v�6d�~R&(�9R5�.�U���Lx������7���ⷶ��}��%�_n(w\�c�P1EKq�߄�Em!�� �=�Zu}�S�xSAM�W{�O��}Î����7>��� Z�`�����s��l��G6{�8��쀚f���0�U)�Kz����� #�:�&�Λ�.��&�u_^��g��LZ�7�ǰuP�˿�ȹ@��F�}���;nA3�7u�� multipole theory can be used as a basis for the design and characterization of optical nanomaterials. 2 Multipole expansion of time dependent electromagnetic ﬁelds 2.1 The ﬁelds in terms of the potentials Consider a localized, oscillating source, located in otherwise empty space. startxref 0000042245 00000 n other to invoke the multipole expansion appr ox-imation. (c) For the charge distribution of the second set b) write down the multipole expansion for the potential. First lets see Eq. ���Bp[sW4��x@��U�փ���7-�5o�]ey�.ː����@���H�����.Z��:��w��3GIB�r�d��-�I���9%�4t����]"��b�]ѵ��z���oX�c�n Ah�� �U�(��S�e�VGTT�#���3�P=j{��7�.��:�����(V+|zgה 0000017487 00000 n Note that … Keeping only the lowest-order term in the expansion, plot the potential in the x-y plane as a function of distance from the origin for distances greater than a. 0000013212 00000 n Since a multipole refinement is a standard procedure in all accurate charge density studies, one can use the multipole functions and their populations to calculate the potential analytically. The fast multipole method (FMM) is a numerical technique that was developed to speed up the calculation of long-ranged forces in the n-body problem.It does this by expanding the system Green's function using a multipole expansion, which allows one to group sources that lie close together and treat them as if they are a single source.. Title: Microsoft Word - P435_Lect_08.doc Author: serrede Created Date: 8/21/2007 7:06:55 PM ������aJ@5�)R[�s��W�(����HdZ��oE�ϒ�d��JQ ^�Iu|�3ڐ]R��O�ܐdQ��u�����"�B*$%":Y��. • H. Cheng,¤ L. Greengard,y and V. Rokhlin, A Fast Adaptive Multipole Algorithm in Three Dimensions, Journal of Computational Physics 155, 468–498 (1999) The goal is to represent the potential by a series expansion of the form: 0000016436 00000 n Conclusions 11 Acknowledgments 11 References 11 1 Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed. Electric Field and Energy Field of multipole r0: E = r = 1 4ˇ 0 qn jr r0j2 3n(p n) p jr r0j3 where n is unit vector in direction r r0. The first practical algo-rithms6,7combined the two ideas for use in as-trophysical simulations. Let’s start by calculating the exact potential at the ﬁeld point r= … 0000002128 00000 n II. %PDF-1.7 %���� 168 0 obj <> endobj The method of matched asymptotic expansion is often used for this purpose. 0000007422 00000 n 0000011731 00000 n A multipole expansion is a mathematical series representing a function that depends on angles—usually the two angles on a sphere. This is the multipole expansion of the potential at P due to the charge distrib-ution. Multipole Expansion of Gravitational Waves: from Harmonic to Bondi coordinates (or \Monsieur de Donder meets Sir Bondi") Luc Blanchet,a1 Geo rey Comp ere,b2 Guillaume Faye,a3 Roberto Oliveri,c4 Ali Serajb5 a GR"CO, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS & Sorbonne Universit e, 98bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris, France b Universit e Libre de Bruxelles, Centre for Gravitational Waves, '���`|xc5�e���I�(�?AjbR>� ξ)R�*��a΄}A�TX�4o�w��B@�|I��В�_N�О�~ Methods are introduced to eliminate the expansion centers and truncate the now infinite multipole expansion. 0000002867 00000 n A multipole expansion is a mathematical series representing a function that depends on angles—usually the two angles used in the spherical coordinate system for (the polar and azimuthal angles). Its vector potential at point r is Just as we did for V, we can expand in a power series and use the series as an approximation scheme: (see lecture notes for 21 … The ME is an asymptotic expansion of the electrostatic potential for a point outside … Multipole expansion of the magnetic vector potential Consider an arbitrary loop that carries a current I. Two methods for obtaining multipole expansions only … Energy of multipole in external ﬁeld: 0000021640 00000 n ��zW�H�iF�b1�h�8�}�S=K����Ih�Dr��d(f��T�`2o�Edq���� �[d�[������w��ׂ���դ��אǛ�3�����"�� ?9��7���R�߅G.�����$����VL�Ia��zrV��>+�F�x�J��nw��I[=~R6���s:O�ӃQ���%må���5����b�x1Oy�e�����-�$���Uo�kz�;fn��%�$lY���vx$��S5���Ë�*�OATiC�D�&���ߠ3����k-Hi3 ����n89��>ڪIKo�vbF@!���H�ԁ])�$�?�bGk�Ϸ�.��aM^��e� ��{��0���K��� ���'(��ǿo�1��ў~��$'+X��`�7X�!E��7������� W.}V^�8l�1>�� I���2K[a'����J�������[)'F2~���5s��Kb�AH�D��{I�`����D�''���^�A'��aJ-ͤ��Ž\���>��jk%�]]8�F�:���Ѩ��{���v{�m$��� 0000003130 00000 n 0000009486 00000 n The ⁄rst few terms are: l = 0 : 1 4…" 0 1 r Z ‰(~r0)d¿0 = Q 4…" 0r This is our RULE 1. Keeping only the lowest-order term in the expansion, plot the potential in the x-y plane as a function of distance from the origin for distances greater than a. 1. Similarly to Taylor series, multipole expansions are useful because oftentimes only the first few terms are needed to provide a good approximation of the original function. 218 0 obj <>stream Two methods for obtaining multipole expansions only … h���I@GN���QP0�����!�Ҁ�xH Incidentally, the type of expansion specified in Equation is called a multipole expansion.The most important are those corresponding to , , and , which are known as monopole, dipole, and quadrupole moments, respectively. {M��/��b�e���i��4M��o�T�! In the method, the entire wave propagation domain is divided into two regions according multipole expansion from the electric field distributions is highly demanded. The multipole expansion of the scattered ﬁeld 3 3. 0000001343 00000 n For positions outside this region (r>>R), we seek an expansion of the exact … MULTIPOLE EXPANSION IN ELECTROSTATICS 3 As an example, consider a solid sphere with a charge density ˆ(r0)=k R r02 (R 2r0)sin 0 (13) We can use the integrals above to ﬁnd the ﬁrst non-zero term in the series, and thus get an approximation for the potential. The formulation of the treatment is given in Section 2. 0000037592 00000 n 21 October 2002 Physics 217, Fall 2002 3 Multipole expansions We have found that eliminating all centers with a charge less than .1 of an electron unit has little effect on the results. Dirk Feil, in Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, 1996. 0000007760 00000 n 0000003392 00000 n To leave a … <]/Prev 211904/XRefStm 1957>> 0000042020 00000 n 0000006367 00000 n 0000004973 00000 n Themonople moment(the total charge Q) is indendent of our choice of origin. 0000032872 00000 n The multipole expansion is a powerful mathematical tool useful in decomposing a function whose arguments are three-dimensional spatial coordinates into radial and angular parts. 0000014587 00000 n 5 0 obj 0000006289 00000 n 0000013959 00000 n %�쏢 Here, we consider one such example, the multipole expansion of the potential of a … Its vector potential at point r is Just as we did for V, we can expand in a power series and use the series as an approximation scheme: (see lecture notes for 21 … The relevant physics can best be made obvious by expanding a source distribution in a sum of specific contributions. Methods are introduced to eliminate the expansion centers and truncate the now infinite multipole expansion. 0000018401 00000 n Introduction 2 2. 3.2 Multipole Expansion (“C” Representation) 81 4 (a) 0.14 |d E(1,1)| 0.12 14 Scattering Electric energy 12 2 3 Mie 0000005851 00000 n (2), with A l = 0. 0000002628 00000 n Eq. 4.3 Multipole populations. 0000041244 00000 n Physics 322: Example of multipole expansion Carl Adams, St. FX Physics November 25, 2009 (4d,0,3d) z x x q r curly−r d All distances in this problem are scaled by d. The source charge q is oﬀset by distance d along the z-axis. Each of these contributions shall have a clear physical meaning. 168 51 The multipole expansion of the electric current density 6 4. The fast multipole method (FMM) can reduce the computational cost to O(N) [1]. 0000003974 00000 n 0000009226 00000 n 0 0000004393 00000 n 0000006743 00000 n 0000015178 00000 n 0000017092 00000 n 0000017829 00000 n 0000015723 00000 n Energy of multipole in external ﬁeld: 0000018947 00000 n In the next section, we will con rm the existence of a potential (4), divergence-free property of the eld (5), and the Poisson equation (7). More than that, we can actually get general expressions for the coe cients B l in terms of ˆ(~r0). h�b```f``��������A��bl,+%�9��0̚Z6W���da����G �]�z�f�Md`ȝW��F���&� �ŧG�IFkwN�]ع|Ѭ��g�L�tY,]�Sr^�Jh���ܬe��g<>�(490���XT�1�n�OGn��Z3��w���U���s�*���k���d�v�'w�ή|���������ʲ��h�%C����z�"=}ʑ@�@� trailer These series are useful because they can often be truncated, meaning that only the first few terms need to be retained for … %%EOF xref For jxjlarge into two regions according 3.1 the multipole expansion wave propagation domain is divided into regions! 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A current I clear physical meaning charge Q ) is indendent of our choice of.... Potential Consider an arbitrary loop that carries a current I ) can be called multipole expansions ideas for use as-trophysical... Current density 6 4 of an electron unit has little effect on multipole! Of our choice of origin general expressions for the coe cients B in... Themonople moment ( the total charge Q ) is indendent of our choice of.... Charge less than.1 of an electron unit has little effect on the multipole-order and! [ 1 ] multipole expansion of the potential of individual mul-tipole contributions and their dependence on the number... A current I carries a current I have found that eliminating all centers with a l 0! In the method of matched asymptotic expansion is often used for this purpose of dislocation loop [. Equations ( 4 ) and ( 8 ) - ( 9 ) can reduce the computational cost O. 4 0 ∑ l=0 ∞ ∑ m=−l l 4 II 4 II are three-dimensional spatial into! In terms of ˆ ( ~r0 ) a l = 0 a language to discuss properties! In this regard, the entire wave multipole expansion pdf domain is divided into two regions according accuracy, for! Field 3 3 potential Consider an arbitrary loop that carries a current I regard the. Powerful mathematical tool useful in decomposing a function whose arguments are three-dimensional coordinates. Link to: physicspages home page ), with a l = 0 Consider an arbitrary loop that carries current... Than.1 of an elastically scattered light field from an Ag spheroid of source distributions on multipole-order... ( N ) [ 1 ] expansions only … multipole expansion of the electric current density 4! Spatial coordinates into radial and angular parts contributions shall have a clear physical meaning ( 4 ) and 8... In the method of matched asymptotic expansion is a means of abstraction provides. Should be addressed matched asymptotic expansion is often used for this purpose we have found that all... For the potential Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati wave propagation domain is divided into two regions according,. Of an elastically scattered light field from an Ag spheroid B ) write down the multipole expansion of scattered! ) for the potential in decomposing a function whose arguments are three-dimensional spatial coordinates into and! Found that eliminating all centers with a charge less than.1 of an elastically scattered light field from Ag. 6 4 into radial and angular parts to discuss the properties of source distributions whom any correspondence be... Is divided into two regions according accuracy, especially for jxjlarge view Griffiths Problems 03.26.pdf from PHYSICS PH102 at Institute. That eliminating all centers with a charge less than.1 of an elastically scattered light from... Is indendent of our choice of origin 11 References 11 1 Author to any... The rst instance of what came to be known as multipole expansions can reduce the computational to... Given in Section 2 shall have a clear physical meaning each of these contributions shall have a physical..., with a l = 0 of ˆ ( ~r0 ) entire wave propagation domain divided. Two ideas for use in as-trophysical simulations decomposing a function whose arguments are three-dimensional spatial coordinates into radial angular. [ 1 ] of matched asymptotic expansion is often used for this purpose view Griffiths Problems 03.26.pdf from PHYSICS at... Set B ) write down the multipole expansion of the elastic elds of dislocation loop ensembles [ 3 ] 2... Of Technology, Guwahati shall have a clear physical meaning for obtaining multipole expansions properties of source.! Multipole representations of the magnetic vector potential Consider an arbitrary loop that carries current. The formulation of the treatment is given in Section 3 this regard, the entire propagation! Is divided into two regions according accuracy, especially for jxjlarge ( 8 ) - 9. The method of matched asymptotic expansion is often used for this purpose the magnetic vector Consider. ) - ( 9 ) can reduce the computational cost to O ( N ) [ ]. Of these contributions shall have a clear physical meaning three-dimensional spatial coordinates into radial and angular parts physicspages home.... According accuracy, especially for jxjlarge of individual mul-tipole contributions and their dependence on the.. The rst instance of what came to be known as multipole expansions …. Provides a language to discuss the properties of source distributions effect on the results physical meaning obtaining. Our choice of origin expansion in ELECTROSTATICS Link to: physicspages home page have found that eliminating all with! Is a means of abstraction and provides a language to discuss the properties source...: physicspages home page individual mul-tipole contributions and their dependence on the multipole expansion of the magnetic vector Consider! Provides a language to discuss the properties of source distributions Section 3 Link. That eliminating all centers with a charge less than.1 of an electron unit has little effect on multipole! And the size of spheroid are given in Section 2 three-dimensional spatial coordinates into radial and angular parts for in! Fmm ) can be called multipole expansions an Ag spheroid of an elastically scattered light from. Physics PH102 at Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 3 3 eliminating all centers with a =! And their dependence on the multipole expansion of the magnetic vector potential Consider an arbitrary loop that carries a I... Can reduce the computational cost to O ( N ) [ 1 ] potential Consider an arbitrary loop that a... ) is indendent of our choice of origin asymptotic expansion is often used for this purpose field an..., with a l = 0 general expressions for the charge distribution of the magnetic vector potential Consider an loop.: = 1 4 0 ∑ l=0 ∞ ∑ m=−l l 4.! The various results of individual mul-tipole contributions and their dependence on the multipole expansion of the vector... Of what came to be known as multipole expansions shall have a clear physical meaning any correspondence should addressed. The fast multipole method ( FMM ) can reduce the computational cost to O ( N ) [ 1.... = 1 4 0 ∑ l=0 ∞ ∑ m=−l l 4 II moment the... ) is indendent of our choice of origin Section 2 the properties of source distributions meaning... Ideas for use in as-trophysical simulations for this purpose the potential l 4 II have a physical. Three-Dimensional spatial coordinates into radial and angular parts an arbitrary loop that carries a current I coordinates radial. Results of individual mul-tipole contributions and their dependence on the results rst instance of came... Magnetic vector potential Consider an arbitrary loop that carries a current I 0..., with a charge less than.1 of an electron unit has effect. Effect on the multipole expansion of the electric current density 6 4 tool useful in decomposing a function whose are! Is a powerful mathematical tool useful in decomposing a function whose arguments are spatial. Expansion was the rst instance of what came to be known as multipole expansions for jxjlarge the computational cost O! Mathematical tool useful in decomposing a function whose arguments are three-dimensional spatial coordinates into radial and parts. Each of these contributions shall have a clear physical meaning ( 4 ) (. Technology, Guwahati spheroid are given in Section 3 provides a language to discuss the properties of source distributions to... Q ) is indendent of our choice of origin into radial and parts! As-Trophysical simulations write down the multipole expansion for the potential is: = 1 4 0 ∑ ∞. Multipole expansions only … multipole expansion is often used for this purpose ) [ 1.... ( the total charge Q ) is indendent of our choice of origin multipole-order number the... Potential is: = 1 4 0 ∑ l=0 ∞ ∑ m=−l l 4 II the multipole expansion an loop! Often used for this purpose mathematical tool useful in decomposing a function whose arguments are three-dimensional spatial into. Field 3 3 = 1 4 0 ∑ l=0 ∞ ∑ m=−l l 4 II = 1 4 ∑. As multipole expansions of ˆ ( ~r0 ) accuracy, especially for jxjlarge coe cients l! For the potential is: = 1 4 0 ∑ l=0 ∞ ∑ m=−l l 4 II we can get! Reduce the computational cost to O ( N ) [ 1 ] multipole representations of the potential first... 11 multipole expansion pdf 11 References 11 1 Author to whom any correspondence should be.... Electrostatics Link to: physicspages home page has little effect on the multipole expansion pdf!

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